The Middle History of Odisha
The area, known as Kalinga, came under various powerful rulers during the Middle Ages Among them were the Ganges rulers, the Gajapati, the Vhoi, and so on. The rule of Mukundadev of the Bhoi dynasty further strengthened the rule of Afghanistan in the region. From the eleventh to the sixteenth century, Kalinga was gradually replaced by the state of Odra or Utkal and finally Odisha.
After the decline of the Somabasi dynasty in the tenth century, the Ganga dynasty was established in Odisha. This dynasty greatly shaped the medieval history of Odisha
In the Middle Ages, the rise of a powerful empire was seen in Odisha, which lasted for many centuries and contributed to the arts, architecture and culture of Odisha. The first of them was the Ganga or Eastern Ganga dynasty in 1038 AD It continued for this
For 400 years, temples like Konark and Jagannath were built by the Ganga rulers It was followed by the Gajapati dynasty in 1434 and lasted for 100 years. The Voy dynasty was later formed in 1541 It lasted for 200 years The Karan dynasty, founded in 1568, was the first Muslim empire in Odisha It was short-lived and the Mughals soon accepted it They appointed governors to take care of the Odisha administration. Later, in 1933, the Naib Nazis of Bengal passed into the hands of the Odisha Marathas. After Maratha, Odisha faced British rule, which is part of the modern history of Odisha.
Ganga Dynasty (1038-1435 AD)
● The Ganga dynasty was a Hindu power on the Indian subcontinent. They are also known as Eastern Ganga. He ruled the entire state of Odisha in modern India. The founder of this dynasty was Kamran. His capital was known as Kalinganagar.
● 1038 AD. In Anantavarman Vajrahasta V firmly established the Ganga dynasty in Odisha. By the end of the 12th century AD, Anantavarma Chodagangadeva (1078–1147) of the Ganga dynasty is credited with ruling the region stretching from the Ganges to the Godavari.
● Vaishnavism enjoyed royal patronage and the Vaishnavite temple was built at Mukhalingam, Sri Kurman, Simhachalam, and Puri. This empire strongly prevented the Muslim invasion. Odisha temple architecture reached its zenith during the Ganga rule with the construction of the famous Sun Temple at Konark by Narasimhadeya I.
● The important rulers of the Ganga dynasty were Chodagungadeva (1077–1147 AD), Rajaraja II (1170–1190 AD), Anangabhimadeva III (1211–1238 AD) and Narasimhadeva I (1238–1264 AD). Bhanudeva IV (1414–1435 AD) was the last Ganga king. He was betrayed by his minister when he went on campaigns against Reddy Kapileshwara Rautraya.
● The rule of the Ganga Dynasty is considered to be the Golden Age. During the reign of Rajaraja II, the great poet Jayadeva rose. The world-famous Sun Temple at Konark was built by Narasimhadeva I. The Jagannath temple was built by Anangabhimadeva III during the Ganga dynasty.
Art and architecture during the Ganges period
● The art and architecture of Odisha reached the pinnacle of glory in the continuous and vigorous building activities by the great Ganga emperors. The Ganga rulers built two unique and beautiful monuments, the Jagannath Temple at Puri and the Sun Temple at Konark.
● These two temples are notable for their vast structures, architectural skills, fine ornamentation, and beautiful images representing episodes of animals, deities, mythology, and erotic partners.
● In this period, the Nagara style of temples was built, with Shikhar, Amalaka, Mandapa. Examples of the Nagara style are the Lingaraja Temple, the Mukteswar Temple, and the Parashurameshwar Temple.
ART and Architecture of Sun Temple by Ganga Dynasty
Administration under the Ganges
● The Ganga dynasty ruled for nearly four hundred years and formed a golden age in the period of medieval Odisha history. The king was the central figure of the administrative establishment.
● The kings of Ganga were assisted by many officials like Mantri, Purohita, Crown Prince, Sandhivigrah, Senapati, Dowarika, etc. The Ganga empire was divided into several provinces in the Ganga inscriptions, known as the Ganges inscriptions.
● The provinces were divided into political divisions as Panchali and Bhoga.
● During the rule of the Ganga dynasty, different types of taxes like Bhet, Voda, Paridarshana, etc. were collected.